To relieve naturally the pain
By controlling the mediators of the inflammation, the extracts of plants like Harpagophytum, the ginger, angelica Korean or the willow can have an direct impact on the perception of the pain which is associated for him. It is also possible to modulate the perception of the pain by inhibiting the degradation of the endogenous antidouleurs of the organization with substances like DLL-phenylalanine.
A nervous, or noxious message (of Latin nocere, to harm), is conveyed along the peripheral nerves to the brain where it becomes really pain, a feeling located in the body and unpleasant. The nervous message is modulated throughout its advance by various systems which can increase or decrease its intensity. A traumatism localised causes the excitation of particular receivers which one practically finds in all the parts of the body, more particularly in the skin, surfaces of the articulations, the walls near the bones and those of the arteries. The receivers of the pain are nervous fibres which can be excited by mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli. Chemical receivers react to various stimuli of internal or external sources, including traumatisms or an ignition. Thus, of specific, mediating prostaglandins of the ignition, can be released locally with painful stimuli and the ignition, to cause an increase in the sensitivity of the receivers of the pain. By controlling the mediators of the ignition, it is thus possible to have an direct impact on the perception of the pain by the brain. To inhibit the activity of the enzymes cyclooxygénases prevents the production of prostaglandins on the level of the peripheral nervous terminations on the site even of the lesion. That prevents the sensitizing of the receivers of the pain by raising their threshold of stimulation and thus decreasing the passage of the painful messages. The organization also has its own substances antidoulor. They are natural morphines called endomorphines or endorphins, peptides opioïdes which have the capacity to inhibit the pain. The endorphins block the reception of the stimulus of the pain while binding to the receivers. To reinforce this natural way of reduction of the pain can make it possible to modulate the perception of the pain.The extract of Harpagophytum, a amount-dependent actionThe root of Harpagophytum is used since the times moved back in popular medicine by Bushmen, Hottentots and Bantous of Southern Africa in the form of decoction in the event of gastric disorders and of fever. The healers also manage it with the parturients in the event of pains. It is introduced in Europe, in Germany, in the middle of last century. One of the first clinical experiments was carried out about 1958 in Iéna on patients suffering from rheumatic pains. But in fact the clinical studies published between 1979 and 1984 will really clarify its interest, showing that she exerts an action anti-inflammatory drug on the chronic ignition and an interesting action analgesic, in particular for the processing of chronic rheumatic pathologies. The active main components of the root of Harpagophytum, of the iridoïdes, primarily the harpagoside, have antalgic properties and anti-inflammatory drugs. In vitro experiments reveal that the harpagoside inhibits in a way amount-dependent the two ways on biosynthesis of the eïcosanoïdes, the cyclooxygénase and the lipoxygénase, thus offering a mechanistic effect vaster than anti-inflammatory drugs not stéroïdiens. An in vitro study showed that an extract of Harpagophytum enriched in harpagosides - Iridoforce™ - involves a human inhibition of 32% of Cox-2, thus being able to help to strongly reduce the ignition of the articulations. At the man, several randomized studies, as a double blind man controlled against placebo and anti-inflammatory drugs not stéroïdiens (AINS) evaluated the effectiveness of extract of Harpagophytum among patients suffering from lumbar pains or arthrite1. Its catch with or without AINS seems to help to decrease the pain related to the ostéoarthrite. Several double blind studies comparing the effects of an extract of Harpagophytum and AINS did not bring back a significant difference in effectiveness between the various groups treated concerning the relief of the pain related to the arthrite2.The angelica extract Korean inhibits the activation of factor NF-KBThe décursinol is extracted from angelica Korean (Angelica gigas Nakai). Research showed that it is a powerful anti-inflammatory drug analgesic. With the difference of the majority of the drugs prescribed to relieve the pain which act by inhibiting the enzymes Cox (cyclooxygénases), the décursinol combat the pain through its effects on the central nervous system. Studies suggest that this mechanism of action could be implied in the mediation of the receivers for serotonin and noradrenalin, two messengers of the nervous system. Angelica Korean showed its effectiveness against many types of pains, particularly against that of origin inflammatoire3. Research indicates that its active ingredient, the décursinol, inhibits the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-KB), a factor of transcription of the DNA which activates many inflammatory and pathological states, including the cancer4. It acts quickly on the ignition and the pain which accompanies it. This capacity to block the NF-KB is highly significant, proof is that the NF-KB and the ways of indication which he babbit metal are intensely studied in the universe of the development of drugs. Scientists carried out a clinical trial to the Mapo private clinic of the pain in South Korea to evaluate the effectiveness and the harmlessness of an angelica extract Korean, Decursinol-50™. They examined a group of individuals with chronic pains due to a osteoarthritis or other diseases not answering the conventional treatments, like analgesics by ways oral or intra-articular. Forty patients received 250 Mg of Decursinol-50™ twice a day during two weeks at the same time as a physical treatment, while a reference group received only one physical treatment. At the end of two weeks, the scores of pain were significantly reduced at 68% of the subjects covered with Decursinol-50™, whereas they had dropped only by 15% in the reference group. The treatment was well tolerated and no side effect was observed. The researchers concluded from these results that the extract should find applications in the management of a vast range of painful diseases, including the chronic pains of the ostéoarthrite or the polyarthritis rhumatoïde, or acute pains caused by lésions5.DLL-phenylalanine blocks the degradation of the enképhalines, of the natural antidouleurs of the organizationDLL-phenylalanine is an essential amino-acid which is metabolized out of tyrosin. This one is the precursor used in the synthesis of the neuro-transmitters norépinéphrine, épinéphrine and dopamine. The enképhalines are neuro-transmitters released by the neurons when occurs a too intense painful feeling. They are endorphins, peptides opioïdes which are fixed on receivers opioïdes present at the surface of the membranes of the neurons of the pain, and which inhibit the messages of the pain towards the brain (of the noxious messages). They thus have an action analgesic (decreasing, even removing the pain). Their action, which is exerted on the ways and the centers of the pain like thalamus, is very quickly inactivated by the intervention of enzymes, the enképhalinases. Several components inhibit the degradation of the enképhalines. Phenylalanine, but only in the form DLL-phenylalanine, is one of them. It inhibits the activity of the enképhalinases and was used successfully at the man in the management of the pain chronique6. DLL-phenylalanine also shows properties anti-inflammatory drugs. It is supposed that inhibitors of the enképhalinases could be effective at the man in a certain number of diseases of deficiencies out of endorphin, like the depression or arthritis. Animal models indicate that a phenylalanine supplementation could increase the threshold of the pain. It is supposed that phenylalanine induces this analgesic effect by blocking degradation of the enképhalines. Preliminary studies on patients suffering from chronic pains showed rates of response from 32 to 75% with the phénylalanine7. Analyses suggest that this effect could be induced by a surregulation of the endogenous system analgesic (SAE). The enképhalines being key neuro-transmitters in the SAE, it is reasonable to think that by supporting the activity of the enképhalines with phenylalanine, one could potentiate the analgesia induced by the SAE.The extract of root of ginger inhibits the activity of Cox-1, Cox-2 and of the 5-lipooxygénaseThe properties anti-inflammatory drugs of the ginger are known since hundreds of years. During these 25 or 30 last years, many laboratories brought scientific evidence supported by old knowledge that the ginger contains components having properties anti-inflammatory drugs. The discovery, with the beginning of the year 1970, that the ginger exerts inhibiting effects on the production of prostaglandins was confirmed on several occasions. The ginger acts on the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting Cox-1 and Cox-2. It also reduces the biosynthesis of leucotrienes by inhibiting the 5-lipoxygénase. Thus, by these various ways, the ginger modulates the inflammation8. The root of ginger contains very powerful components anti-inflammatory drugs, the gingérols. One allots to them the reduction of the level of pain and the improvement of mobility at subjects suffering from arthritis or ostéoarthrite when they consume ginger regularly. A study was undertaken for investiguer the analgesics effects, anti-inflammatory drugs and hypoglycémiants of an extract of root of ginger on rats and mice. The results came assure to the traditional use in ethnomédecine ginger in the treatment or management from inflammatory arthritic pathologies douloureuses9. In a double blind study cross and controlled against placebo which lasted 12 months, 29 old patients from 42 to 85 years with a painful arthritis of the knee received four times per day during 12 weeks 250 Mg of a standardized extract of ginger or a placebo. Then, during the 12 following weeks, the treatments were interchanged. Then, 20 patients wishing to continue the experiment were followed during 24 weeks additional. The pain caused by the movements of the knee, the mobility and the circumference of the knee were measured at the beginning of the study then every month. At the end of first the six months period, the subjects receiving the extract of ginger noted that they suffered less when they were driven and that they were less handicapped. The pain caused by the movement passed from a score of 76,14 to a score of 41,00 and the handicap from 73,47 to 46,08. On the other hand, the subjects which passed from the supplementation in ginger to the placebo saw the pain caused by the movement to increase with a score of 82,10 and their handicap to pass to 80,80. In the final stage of the study during which all the subjects received extract of ginger, the pain remained weak at those already taking ginger in the preceding phase and decreased again at those previously under placebo. The supplementation also decreased the puffiness and the circumference of their knees: in the first phase of the study, this one passed from 43,25 cm to 39,36 cm; for those which continued the experiment, it further decreased to reach 38,78 to 36,38 cm10.The salicin, extracted the bark of willow, has analgesics effects and antipyreticThe therapeutic properties of the willow are known since several thousands of years: Sumériens used already its sheets as antidoulor. Hippocrates recommended a decoction of bark of white willow to relieve the fever; Dioscoride recommended it like remedy against the inflammatory arthropathies and the drop. “In 1876, a doctor exerting in South Africa tells in a letter sent to the editor of Lancet which he saw a woman suffering, according to its own terms, of the wildest attack of rheumatism than he ever saw and than he prescribed the usual treatment at that time: powder of Dover and calomel. Re-examining the patient two months later completely cured, it started to be pleased with its treatment and congratula the patient when this one explained to him why makes its treatment of it had been a total failure and that she had finally gone to consult an old shepherd hottentot who had made a decoction of sheets of willow; after takehaving taken it during a few days, the pains started to decrease and finally disappeared complètement11.” The German Commission E and European Scientific Cooperative one Phytotherapy (ESCOP) recognize the effectiveness of the bark of willow cause a drop in the fever, to relieve the rheumatic pains and the headache. It contains one salicylated, salicin, insulated by French pharmacist Leroux in 1829. In 1897, Felix Hoffmann finds a method of production of a derived substance, the acetylsalicylic acid; on February 1, 1899, the pharmaceutical laboratory Rhenish Bayer launches a new product, aspirine. Salicin is metabolized in salicylic acid which has effects antipyretic and analgesics. A peak of concentration in salicylic acid is obtained approximately two hours after the ingestion of salicin; it is about 1,2 mg/l, a value equivalent to that obtained with 87 Mg of aspirine. Let us recall that aspirine is acid acétylsalicylique12. Researchers wanted to know the effectiveness of an extract of willow. They enlisted 210 subjects in a double blind study four week old and divided them into three groups which received a placebo or an extract of willow containing 120 or 240 salicin Mg. The participants suffered all from chronic evils of exacerbated backs. They were authorized to take an analgesic if the treatment were not enough to relieve the pain. At the end of the study, on the 191 patients having finished the study, 39% of the group taking the amount of 240 salicin Mg did not have any more any back pains, against 6% of those under placebo13.